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Science@Ames
 
Space ScienceSpace Science @ Ames features research in infrared astrophysics, laboratory astrophysics, extrasolar planets, planetary sciences, exobiology, and astrobiology.
 
 
Earth ScienceEarth Science @ Ames features basic and applied research in atmospheric and biospheric sciences, and conducts airborne science campaigns.
 
 
Biological ScienceBioSciences @ Ames features research in fundamental space biology, and provides engineering and payload development for the International Space Station.
 

 
Features
 
NASA Ames Celebrates 75th Anniversary with 'Living Museum'
July 1, 2014
 
NASA Ames Celebrates 75th Anniversary with 'Living Museum'
LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) display.
In 1939, nestled between Moffett Field Naval Air Station and the California towns of Mountain View and Sunnyvale, a seed of innovation was planted. Nourished by determination and outside-the-box thinking, that seed has borne fruit in the form of cutting-edge advances in aeronautics and technology, and an in-depth scientific understanding of our Earth and the universe. On December 20, 2014, NASA's Ames Research Center, Moffett Field. California, turns 75 years old.

To help celebrate the center's diamond anniversary, Ames, in partnership with Mountain View and Sunnyvale, will display a 17-piece "living museum" highlighting the center's past and present engineering and scientific endeavors at certain businesses and public venues. The exhibits will be in place from July 1 through July 31.

The living museum includes exhibits about the following Ames projects and activities:

  • The living museum includes exhibits about the following Ames projects and activities:
  • the Chemistry and Mineralogy instrument, CheMin, used on the Mars rover Curiosity to analyze Martian soil samples for signs of life, which won NASA's 2013 Invention of the Year award
  • models of aircraft and test facilities used in the center's ground-breaking rotorcraft and wind tunnel research
  • test models of components of the new Space Launch System and Orion crew capsule that will expand NASA's reach past low-Earth orbit
  • displays highlighting the leadership and major involvement of Ames in the Kepler, LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer)
  • SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy) and IRIS (Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph) missions


For more information about the Ames 75th anniversary celebration living museum, visit:


http://www.nasa.gov/ames/75th-anniversary-living-museum/


By Jonas Dino
NASA's Ames Research Center



Image Credit: Dennis Gonzales, NASA Ames

 
NASA Begins Testing of New Spectrograph on Agency's Airborne Observatory
June 3, 2014
 
NASA Begins Testing of New Spectrograph on Agency's Airborne Observatory

Astronomers are eagerly waiting to begin use of a new instrument to study celestial objects: a high-resolution, mid-infrared spectrograph mounted on NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA), the world's largest flying telescope.

This new instrument, the Echelon-Cross-Echelle Spectrograph (EXES), can separate wavelengths of light to a precision of one part in 100,000. At the core of EXES is an approximately 3-foot (1 meter) bar of aluminum called an echelon grating, carefully machined to act as 130 separate mirrors that split light from the telescope into an infrared "rainbow."

SOFIA is a heavily modified Boeing 747 Special Performance jetliner that carries a telescope with an effective diameter of about 8-feet (2.5-meters) at altitudes of 39,000 to 45,000 feet (12 to 14 km), above more than 99 percent of Earth's atmospheric water vapor. Lower in the atmosphere, at altitudes associated with most ground-based observatories, water vapor obscures much of what can be learned when viewed in the infrared spectrum.

"The combination of EXES's high spectral resolution and SOFIA's access to infrared radiation from space provides an unprecedented ability to study celestial objects at wavelengths unavailable from ground-based telescopes," said Pamela Marcum, a program scientist at the SOFIA Science Center and Program Office in Moffett Field, California. "EXES on SOFIA will provide data that cannot be obtained by any other astronomical facility on the ground or in space, including all past, present or those observatories now under development."

EXES successfully carried out its first two flights on SOFIA on the nights of April 7 and 9, according to Matthew Richter, leader of the team that is developing the instrument at the University of California, Davis, Physics Department. EXES is a collaboration between U.C. Davis and NASA's Ames Research Center in Moffett Field.

"During the two flights, EXES made observations to investigate and characterize the instrument's performance. All the main goals of these observations were successful, although further commissioning flights are required to test EXES in all of its modes," said Richter.



On the first commissioning flight, EXES observed emissions from Jupiter's atmosphere in two molecular hydrogen lines. These observations will be used to understand how gas rises from deep in Jupiter's interior and mixes into the planet's upper atmosphere.

During the second commissioning flight, EXES observed a young, massive star in the constellation Cygnus that is still embedded in its natal cocoon. The star, known as AFGL 2591, warms up the surrounding interstellar dust and causes ice coatings on the dust to evaporate. The warmed dust provides an excellent background infrared "lamp" to probe the chemical make-up of the intervening gas.

New stars and planets are forming from that material through processes similar to the ones that made the sun and Earth. These observations are designed to study water vapor around the protostar, and demonstrate that EXES can detect absorption from the lowest energy level of water molecules despite interference from water vapor from Earth's atmosphere.

"Of the observations obtained during the instrument's first flights, only one can be done from the ground, albeit with some difficulty, and the others are impossible from even the best ground-based telescope sites because the water in Earth's atmosphere is opaque at these wavelengths," Richter said. "While space observatories are above Earth's atmosphere, the massive optical equipment required to separate the light as finely as EXES does - EXES weighs almost 1,000 pounds - would be a challenge to launch into space. In these observations, the spectral features we are studying are narrow, and finely dividing the infrared spectrum to detect them is exactly what EXES was designed to do."

SOFIA is a joint project of NASA and the German Aerospace Center (DLR). The aircraft is based at and the program is managed from NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's facility in Palmdale, California. NASA's Ames Research Center, manages the SOFIA science and mission operations in cooperation with the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) headquartered in Columbia, Maryland, and the German SOFIA Institute (DSI) at the University of Stuttgart.

For more information about SOFIA, visit:

http://www.nasa.gov/sofia

or

http://www.dlr.de/en/sofia


By Rachel Hoover
NASA's Ames Research Center


By Steve Cole/Dwayne Brown
Headquarters, Washington


Image Credit: Credit: Lockheed Martin


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